The Social Change Model
If you're a leadership educator of high school, undergraduate, or graduate school students, The Social Change Model: Facilitating Leadership Development is indispensable reading. KRISTAN CILENTE SKENDALL is currently the Associate Director of the Gemstone Honors Program, a four-year undergraduate team research program in the Honors College at the University of Maryland. She is a co-lead facilitator with the LeaderShape Institute, has taught numerous leadership courses, has presented at dozens of national and international conferences, and was a member of the Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership Research Team. DANIEL T. OSTICK is Assistant Director for Student and Staff Development in the Department of Resident Life at the University of Maryland. He is the author of 'Leadership and Diversity' in the Handbook for Student Leadership Programs (2006) and The Handbook of Student Leadership Development (2011). He was co-editor of the Facilitator's Guide for Leadership for a Better World as well as the Facilitator's Guide and Student Workbook for Exploring Leadership . SUSAN R. KOMIVES is professor emerita from the University of Maryland and cofounder of the National Clearinghouse for Leadership Programs (NCLP). She is coauthor of Exploring Leadership: For College Students Who Want to Make a Difference (1998, 2007, 2013), and co-editor of Leadership for a Better World: Understanding the Social Change Model of Leadership Development (2009, 2017) . Additionally she was a member of the Ensemble that developed the Social Change Model of Leadership Development. She served as co-Principle Investigator for the Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership (now with 350 campuses and nearly 400,000 student responders examining the Social Change Model of Leadership Development). WENDY WAGNER is the Honey W. Nashman Fellow for Faculty Development in the Honey W. Nashman Center for Civic Engagement and Public Service and visiting assistant professor of human services and social justice at The George Washington University. She was a co-editor of the first and second editions of Leadership for a Better World . She was also co-editor of The Handbook for Student Leadership Development and lead editor for the Facilitator's Guide and Student Workbook for Exploring Leadership .
The Social Change Model
The Social Change Model of Leadership Development for Leadership Educators
Kristan Cilente Skendall & Daniel T. Ostick
"Leadership is the way we invade our future."
Leadership educators shape the future through their work. The Social Change Model (SCM) of Leadership Development is a tool to help in that process. Designed as a complement to Leadership for a Better World (2nd Edition) and for use in applications of the SCM in retreats and workshops, this book, The Social Change Model: Facilitating Leadership Development , provides resources for leadership educators to teach the SCM via interactive, scaffolded learning exercises. The activities and resources provided are designed to work in curricular and co-curricular settings, and are appropriate for those new to the SCM and those with a more advanced understanding of leadership studies.
Brief History of Leadership
The concept of leadership has evolved a lot over the past 2,000 years. There are hundreds of definitions of leadership (Rost, 1991) and new approaches emerge regularly. Early approaches to leadership were leader-centric and focused on an individual's traits (Bass, 1990; Rost, 1991). The Great Man Theory approached leadership as a genetic quality, passed down over generations. The early 1900s brought a new approach to leadership, one focused on inherent traits, rather than bloodlines. While trait theory is still present, our understanding of leadership has expanded exponentially over the past 100 years. Mid-twentieth century scholars researched behavioral approaches to leadership giving way to situational and contingency theories of leadership (Bass, 1990; Rost, 1991).
Although trait theory, situational leadership, and behavioral approaches to leadership are still in use today, a more relational, post-industrial approach to leadership emerged at the end of the twentieth century. Leadership , a pivotal book by J. M. Burns (1978), signaled a shift from a leader-centric view of leadership to a process-oriented approach to leadership. Burns highlighted the importance of ethics and the relationship between people in leadership positions, with transactional leadership being a quid pro quo model more akin to management, and transforming leadership the foundation for leadership that is most used today.
The Social Change Model of Leadership Development
The postindustrial paradigm (Rost, 1991) that emerged in the 1980s influenced current approaches to leadership, particularly the Relational Leadership Model (Komives, Lucas, & McMahon, 2013) and the Social Change Model (SCM) of Leadership Development (Higher Education Research Institute [HERI], 1996). Astin and Leland's (1991) hallmark study of women involved in social change movements set the groundwork for the Social Change Model's creation. Shortly after Women of Influence, Women of Vision (Astin & Leland, 1991) was published, an Eisenhower grant was made available to college and university researchers interested in leadership development. Alexander and Helen Astin served as the co-principal investigators for a grant to understand student leadership and social change. They brought together the top scholars on leadership with student affairs professionals engaged in student leadership work.
This research team called themselves "the Ensemble" and they adopted an approach to their work that would mirror the product they developed. This team was comprised of many musicians, which was an important influence on the development of the SCM as it informed how the group came together. Like a jazz ensemble, the SCM Ensemble team built off of the work of one another in an organic manner, and fostered innovation and creativity in the process of developing the SCM.
Once the Ensemble had a working approach to their new model, th