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A Fair Deal on Talent - Fostering Just Migration Governance

  • Erschienen: 12.05.2015
  • Verlag: Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung
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A Fair Deal on Talent - Fostering Just Migration Governance

If well managed, migration generates benefits for migrants, their countries of origin and the countries they settle in. For migrants, it can help them expand their skill sets and improve their standard of living. For destination countries, it can alleviate demographic pressures and foster cultural diversity. For origin countries, it can bring benefits associated with remittances and knowledge transfers. However, in reality, these benefits are rarely achieved, as migration policy failures frequently lead to suboptimal or even negative outcomes. Realizing the full potential of migration therefore demands we foster a paradigm shift toward the fair management of migration. Fair migration is driven by the desire to achieve a triple-win for migrants, destination countries and origin countries. In addition to outlining the key challenges and opportunities associated with fair migration, this volume examines the good practices of a variety of countries and institutions which highlight aspects of fair migration. The volume concludes with policy recommendations for effective and fair migration policymaking at the national and international levels. As a conceptual and empirical contribution to both national and international debates on managing migration, this volume aims to enrich discussions among policymakers, business leaders, civil society actors and scholars alike.

Produktinformationen

    Größe: 3617kBytes
    Herausgeber: Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung
    Untertitel: Lessons from Around the Globe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Seitenanzahl: 334
    Format: PDF
    Kopierschutz: none
    ISBN: 9783867936903
    Erschienen: 12.05.2015
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A Fair Deal on Talent - Fostering Just Migration Governance

The Benefits of the Migration of Talents: Evidence and Prospects

Jean-Pierre Garson
Introduction

"In the fall of 1743, a fourteen-year old boy entered Berlin at the Rosenthaler Tor. [...] We do not know whether he was wearing shoes. [...] The boy, later famous throughout Europe as the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, was frail and sickly, small for his age. Early years of poverty had left him with [...] a badly humped back" (Elon 2002).

The above quotation shows the extent to which it was risky in Prussia in the mid-18th century to discount the contribution of future talent, even if it appeared insignificant at first glance. A century later in France, the saying "Happy as God in France" testified to the gratitude of immigrants to a host country where they had arrived after having overcome myriad obstacles. How many of these immigrants and their descendants eventually contributed in significant ways to their adopted countries? Even today, it is not always easy for a host country either to identify and nurture talent locally or to attract foreigners from abroad, and it is sometimes even more difficult to retain talented immigrants.

This paper is organized as follows: I briefly review the main aspects of talent recruitment in developed countries and conclude that for the moment, the issue of a "fair deal" (defined as an equitable distribution of the benefits of migration between receiving countries, sending countries and migrants themselves) is not high on receiving countries' political agendas. We then present policy options that could help receiving countries make better use of their immigrants' skills in both the short and long term, and could additionally harness immigrants' talents to foster development within sending countries. Finally, a short note on definitions: In the absence of a measurable definition of "talent," I use the terms "qualified workers" to refer to those with a high-level vocational or tertiary qualification, and "highly qualified workers" to refer to individuals such as scientists, senior researchers and other exceptionally qualified professionals.
Policies to recruit immigrant workers in OECD countries focus on the qualified without seeking to ensure a "fair deal" relative to migrants' countries of origin

Policies are designed to attract and retain qualified immigrants...

A portion of the current migration flows of qualified workers takes place between countries belonging to a framework, such as the European Economic Area (EEA), that enables the free movement of persons (Desiderio 2012). To a lesser extent, such migration also takes place in other regions, such as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (Chudinovskikh 2012), and in the context of free-trade or bilateral agreements between two or more partner countries, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between Canada, Mexico and the United States. Special programs also apply to skilled non-EU migrants; these include the EU Blue Card, Austria's Red-White-Red Card or Germany's Green Card (established between 2000 and 2005, mainly to recruit computer scientists from India), as well as labor-shortage lists in countries such as France and the United Kingdom. Moreover, employers can also recruit immigrant workers according to their labor-market needs, provided that they first obtain authorization from the receiving country's labor-market authorities (labor-market test). OECD settlement countries (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States) have sought to attract qualified immigrant workers through measures such as special visas or point systems, with a particular focus on foreign investors, high-level scientists and researchers (Chaloff and Lemaître 2009; OEC

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