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Welfare State Change in Leading OECD Countries The Influence of Post-Industrial and Global Economic Developments von Schustereder, Ingmar (eBook)

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 30.05.2010
  • Verlag: Gabler Verlag
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Welfare State Change in Leading OECD Countries

Ingmar J. Schustereder investigates the relative influence of economic globalization and post industrial developments as drivers behind recent welfare state change and examines to what extent different national systems of social protection have preserved their core institutional features over time. Dr. Ingmar J. Schustereder earned his doctoral degree from the European Business School under Prof. Dr. Joachim Ahrens' supervision. He lives in Vienna and works for an international management consultancy.

Produktinformationen

    Format: PDF
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 222
    Erscheinungsdatum: 30.05.2010
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9783834986221
    Verlag: Gabler Verlag
    Serie: Gabler Research Bd.74
    Größe: 2302 kBytes
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Welfare State Change in Leading OECD Countries

5 Post-Industrial Challenges of the Contemporary Capitalist Welfare State (S. 45-46)

As briefly outlined in the introduction to Part II, nation states are not only confronted with challenges arising from increasing international economic integration, but also have to face severe strains in the domestic realm. Reviewing prior classifications of the driving forces of welfare state change (for example, Brady et al., 2005, pp. 922-925, Brady et al., 2007, pp. 318-320, Ellison, 2006, pp. 48-59, Genschel, 2004, Hicks, 1999, pp. 157-168, Chapter 7, Koster, 2008, pp. 2-3), the author identifies a school of thought, which takes a critical stance toward welfare state-globalization nexus oriented views (see Chapter 6.3).

Precisely, this theoretical perspective downplays the role of global economic forces, suggesting instead that domestic factors are by far more important drivers of contemporary welfare state development (for example, Castles, 2001, Iversen, 2001, Iversen & Cusack, 2000, Pierson, 2001a, Pierson, 1996, Pierson, 1994/ 1997). As a consequence, they have been looking at so-called "post-industrial pressures" (Pierson, 2001a, p. 80) evolving within advanced capitalist welfare states in order to identify possible determinants of public social spending.

Among the various factors, Pierson (2001a) considers processes of deindustrialization, population ageing, changing household structures, and welfare state maturation to be the most severe post-industrial challenges for contemporary welfare states (pp. 82-83, see Buti et al., 1998, pp. 17-22, Esping-Andersen, 2005). Following Pierson's (2001a) analysis, the author will shed light on each of these domestic welfare state pressures. Finally, the chapter will also focus on the potential implications these post-industrial developments are likely to have for the political decision-making process.

5.1 The Phenomenon of Deindustrialization

During the last four decades OECD countries have seen a dramatic fall in the share of agricultural and industrial employment relative to total employment - a phenomenon commonly termed as process of deindustrialization (Rowthorn & Ramaswamy, 1997, p. 4). As depicted in Figure 2, the employment share of both sectors amounted to 60 percent of total civilian employment for Continental-European and Nordic countries and 50 percent for Anglo-Saxon countries in 1960, by 2000, this share has decreased to 30 percent in almost all high-income countries (see Iversen & Cusack, 2000, pp. 314-315).

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