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Acetylsalicylic Acid von Schrör, Karsten (eBook)

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 17.06.2016
  • Verlag: Wiley-ISTE
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Acetylsalicylic Acid

Written by a leading expert on Aspirin-related research, this is the first comprehensive treaty of the history, pharmacological effects and clinical applications of one of the most successful drugs ever. The text is written with a wide audience in mind, and to be readily understandable for clinicians, pharmacists, biomedical researchers and pharmacologists alike. This second, completely revised edition contains the latest results of clinical and pharmacological research on Acetylsalicylic acid, addressing the multiple pharmacological properties of this famous drug with a balanced view on their translation into clinical practice, including prevention from cardiovascular diseases and colorectal cancer. Karsten Schrör is Professor of Pharmacology and retired Chairman of the Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology at the Heinrich-Heine-University in Düsseldorf, Germany. He obtained his M.D. at Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany) and carried out postdoctoral studies at the Universities of Halle, Mainz, Köln, the Wellcome Research Laboratories in Beckenham (UK) and the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia (USA). He held guest professorships at the Medical University of South Carolina at Charleston (USA) and the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology, University of Texas Medical Center, Houston (USA). Karsten Schrör is member of the German National Academy of Science (Leopoldina) and was President of the German Society for Pharmacology from 2005 to 2010. He has published extensively in the area of aspirin and prostaglandin research with focus on platelet functions and the clotting system and serves on several national and international review panels and advisory committees on thrombosis research, colorectal cancer and drug development.

Produktinformationen

    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 600
    Erscheinungsdatum: 17.06.2016
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9783527685042
    Verlag: Wiley-ISTE
    Größe: 5776 kBytes
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Acetylsalicylic Acid

1
General Aspects

1.1 History
1.1.1 From Willow Bark to Salicylic Acid
1.1.2 Synthesis of Acetylated Salicylic Acid and First Medical Use
1.1.3 Search for Pharmacological Modes of Action
1.1.4 Clinical Applications: A Piece of History
1.1.5 Current Research Topics
1.2 Chemistry
1.2.1 Structures and Chemical Properties of Salicylates
1.2.2 Determination of Salicylates 1.1 History

1.1.1 From Willow Bark to Salicylic Acid

1.1.1.1 Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Willow Bark and Leaves
Medical Effects of Willow Bark

Treatment of maladies by plants or extracts thereof is as old as the history of mankind. This is also true for fever and pain, two particularly frequent and inconvenient symptoms of acute illnesses but also typical for osteoarthritis and rheumatism, two examples of chronic painful diseases. Rheumatism was already known in old Egypt as seen from cartilage alterations in Egyptian mummies. The Egyptians were also aware of the pain-relieving effects of potions made from myrtle and willow leaves. Clay tablets from the Sumerian period also contained information about the use of willow leaves as medicines. Hippocrates recommended leaves of the willow tree for medical purposes about 400 BC. Pliny (compilations) and Dioscurides ( Materia Medica ) also recommended decocts of willow leaves or ash from willow bark for treatment of sciatica (lumbago) and gout at about 100 AC. Outside Europe, it were the Nama (Hottentots) in Southern Africa who had "for a long time" used tea made from bark of willow trees for treatment of rheumatic diseases (cited after Ref. [1]). This comment was made by Dr. Ensor from Cape Town (South Africa) in his reply to a publication of Dr. MacLagan in 1876 [2] describing for the first time positive experience with salicylates at 2 g/day for treatment of rheumatism.
The First Published Clinical Trial

The first known public communication on the medical use of willow bark extracts in modern times came from Reverend Edward Stone [3] from Chipping Norton (Oxfordshire, England). He treated some 50 cases of "aigues, fever, and intermitting disorders" with a redissolved powdered dry bark preparation of willow tree. The doses were about "20 gr(ains) [=1.3 g] to a dram of water every 4 hours." On June 2, 1763, he wrote a letter to the Earl of Macclesfield, the then President of the Royal Society in London, entitled "An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of aigues." In this letter, he summarized his opinion about this treatment as follows:

...As this tree delights in moist or wet soil where agues chiefly abound, the general maxim, that many natural maladies carry their cure along with them or that their remedies lie not far from their causes, was so very apposite to this particular case, that I could not help applying it; and this might be the intention of providence here, I must own had some little weight with me....

After claiming to have obtained good results, he concluded:

...I have no other motives for publishing this valuable specific than that it may have a fair and full trial in all its variety of circumstances and situations, and that the world may reap the benefits accruing from it.
1.1.1.2 Salicylates as the Active Ingredients of Willow Bark and Other Natural Sources
Detection and Preparation of Salicin from Willow Bark

In 1828, the German pharmacist Johann Andreas Buchner was the first to prepare a yellowish mash with bitter taste from boiled willow bark, which he named Salicin, after the Latin word for willow (salix). He considered salicin as the active antipyretic ingredient of w

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