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Landscape Genetics Concepts, Methods, Applications von Balkenhol, Niko (eBook)

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Landscape Genetics

Glossary Adaptive locus See non-neutral locus. Adfluvial Species that migrate between freshwater lakes and streams or rivers. Advection Horizontal movement (e.g., of water), usually due to transport by currents. Agent-based models (ABMs) A class of computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents (both individual or collective individuals grouped into populations). Synonymous to individual-based models, which is the term more commonly used in ecology. Allele A unique genetic variant observed at a particular locus. Anadromous Aquatic species that migrate from salt water into fresh water to reproduce. Ancestry distribution models (ADM) Correlative models relating ancestry coefficients to environmental predictors. Anisotropy A situation where the autocorrelation in the data depends on direction as in directional asymmetry (e.g., when movement between two locations is more frequent or more probable in one direction than the opposite direction, e.g., due to the main wind direction across the study area). Assignment methods/assignment tests Methods that use genotypic information to evaluate population membership of sampled individuals. Autocorrelation A measure of the average similarity of any two observations depending on their spatial, temporal, or phylogenetic lag (i.e., distance). May be positive (nearby observations are more similar than distant ones), zero (independence, absence of significant autocorrelation), or negative (nearby observations are less similar than distant ones). Backward simulator Genetic signature is reconstructed typically using coalescent theory from time 0 to time n where n < 0. Bandwidth Area associated with a graph edge (edge "width"). Betweenness (Node/Edge) The number of times this element is traversed between all "shortest paths" in the graph. Biophysical model In the study of ocean and lake connectivity, biophysical models are simulations of larval dispersal and/or population dynamics based on representation of the geographic distribution of habitat, current flow, and life history parameters of the taxa of interest. More complex models incorporate the effects of seasonality, temperature, productivity, tides, and other environmental characteristics that impact demographic rates. Bottlenecks When a population goes through a period where its effective population size is extremely small, resulting in an increase in the effects of genetic drift and a consequent loss of genetic variation. Catadromous Aquatic species that migrate from fresh water in salt water to reproduce. Centrality (Node/Edge) A general term for measures of the relative position of a node or an edge in terms of direct or indirect connectivity or facilitation of flow through a network. There are four major types of centrality: degree, betweenness, closeness, and eigenvector. Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) A circular DNA molecule found in the chloroplast of plants. Clique (Node) In general, a group of nodes more connected than expected by chance. Coalescent A body of theory that investigates time of divergence from a common ancestor. In population genetics, this theory can be applied to understanding differences in allele frequencies among populations. Conditional genetic distance (cGD) A measure of genetic dissimilarity based upon conditional genetic covariance. This measure differs from genetic distance measures in that it is not a pair-wise measure but the distance through a Population Graph constructed based on all of the data. Cycles (Edge) A sequence of paths that forms a closed

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    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 288
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9781118525234
    Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
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Landscape Genetics

Glossary

Adaptive locus
See non-neutral locus.
Adfluvial
Species that migrate between freshwater lakes and streams or rivers.
Advection
Horizontal movement (e.g., of water), usually due to transport by currents.
Agent-based models (ABMs)
A class of computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents (both individual or collective individuals grouped into populations). Synonymous to individual-based models, which is the term more commonly used in ecology.
Allele
A unique genetic variant observed at a particular locus.
Anadromous
Aquatic species that migrate from salt water into fresh water to reproduce.
Ancestry distribution models (ADM)
Correlative models relating ancestry coefficients to environmental predictors.
Anisotropy
A situation where the autocorrelation in the data depends on direction as in directional asymmetry (e.g., when movement between two locations is more frequent or more probable in one direction than the opposite direction, e.g., due to the main wind direction across the study area).
Assignment methods/assignment tests
Methods that use genotypic information to evaluate population membership of sampled individuals.
Autocorrelation
A measure of the average similarity of any two observations depending on their spatial, temporal, or phylogenetic lag (i.e., distance). May be positive (nearby observations are more similar than distant ones), zero (independence, absence of significant autocorrelation), or negative (nearby observations are less similar than distant ones).
Backward simulator
Genetic signature is reconstructed typically using coalescent theory from time 0 to time n where n < 0.
Bandwidth
Area associated with a graph edge (edge "width").
Betweenness (Node/Edge)
The number of times this element is traversed between all "shortest paths" in the graph.
Biophysical model
In the study of ocean and lake connectivity, biophysical models are simulations of larval dispersal and/or population dynamics based on representation of the geographic distribution of habitat, current flow, and life history parameters of the taxa of interest. More complex models incorporate the effects of seasonality, temperature, productivity, tides, and other environmental characteristics that impact demographic rates.
Bottlenecks
When a population goes through a period where its effective population size is extremely small, resulting in an increase in the effects of genetic drift and a consequent loss of genetic variation.
Catadromous
Aquatic species that migrate from fresh water in salt water to reproduce.
Centrality (Node/Edge)
A general term for measures of the relative position of a node or an edge in terms of direct or indirect connectivity or facilitation of flow through a network. There are four major types of centrality: degree, betweenness, closeness, and eigenvector.
Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA)
A circular DNA molecule found in the chloroplast of plants.
Clique (Node)
In general, a group of nodes more connected than expected by chance.
Coalescent
A body of theory that investigates time of divergence from a common ancestor. In population genetics, this theory can be applied to understanding differences in allele frequencies among populations.
Conditional genetic distance (cGD)
A measure of genetic dissimilarity based upon conditional genetic covariance. This measure differs from genetic distance measures in that it is not a pair-wise measure but the distance through a Population Graph constructed based on all of the data.
Cycles (Edge)
A sequence of paths that forms a closed

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