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Sustainable Polymers from Biomass

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 21.02.2017
  • Verlag: Wiley-VCH
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Sustainable Polymers from Biomass

Offering a unique perspective summarizing research on this timely important topic around the globe, this book provides comprehensive coverage of how molecular biomass can be transformed into sustainable polymers. It critically discusses and compares a few classes of biomass - oxygen-rich, hydrocarbon-rich, hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon (including carbon dioxide) as well as natural polymers - and equally includes products that are already commercialized. A must-have for both newcomers to the field as well as established researchers in both academia and industry. Chuanbing Tang is Associate Professor and College of Arts and Sciences Distinguished Professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of South Carolina. He received his B.S. degree in Polymer Science from Nanjing University and Ph.D. in Chemistry from Carnegie Mellon University under the direction of Krzysztof Matyjaszewski and Tomasz Kowalewski. He was also a postdoctoral researcher with Craig Hawker and Edward Kramer at the University of California at Santa Barbara. His research interests include organic polymer synthesis, sustainable polymers from renewable natural resources, metal-containing polymers, and polymers for biomedical application. He has been recognized with a few awards including South Carolina Governor?s Young Scientist Award, NSF Career Award, Thieme Chemistry Journal Award and USC Distinguished Undergraduate Research Mentor Award. He has also been named a Breakthrough Rising Star at the University of South Carolina and an ACS PMSE Young Investigator. He has published over 100 papers and 10 patents. Chang Y. Ryu is Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and Director of New York State Center for Polymer Synthesis at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). He completed his B.S. and M.S. in Chemical Technology at Seoul National University and received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering at the University of Minnesota under the direction of Tim Lodge. He served as a postdoctoral researcher with Ed Kramer and Glenn Fredrickson in the Materials Research Laboratory at the University of California at Santa Barbara and started his faculty position at RPI in 2000. He has been awarded the IUPAC Young Observer Award (2007), NSF CAREER Award (2005), and the Arthur K. Doolittle Award from the ACS Division of Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering (1998). His research focuses on macromolecular separation and adsorption, block copolymer self-assembly, and photopolymerization as well as structure-property-relationships of polymeric materials.


    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 550
    Erscheinungsdatum: 21.02.2017
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9783527340194
    Verlag: Wiley-VCH
    Größe: 17796 kBytes
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Sustainable Polymers from Biomass

Chapter 1

Mitra S. Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang and Chang Y. Ryu
1.1 Introduction

The discovery and development of synthetic polymeric materials in the twentieth century is undisputedly recognized as one of the most significant inventions humans have made to improve the quality of life. Durability, light weight, processability, and diverse physiochemical properties are just a few merits why polymeric materials are widely used for the manufacture of simple water bottles to setting up modern space stations. Outstanding processability features along with adequate physical properties have resulted in polymeric materials displacing many other materials, such as wood, metal, and glass to a considerable extent. Packaging, construction, transportation, aerospace, biomedical, energy, and military are few examples of industrial sectors, where polymeric materials prevail. Global production of plastic has risen from 204 million tons in 2002 to about 299 million tons in 2013 [1]. Manufacture of non-natural polymers is largely associated with the utilization of essentially non-renewable fossil feedstocks, either natural gas or petroleum. Approximately, 5-8% of the global oil production is used for plastic production [2]. Accompanying environmental problems include, but are not limited to, generation of solid waste that accumulates in landfills and oceans, production pollution and related environmental problems [3]. A major underlying issue in the use of plastics is the enormous carbon footprint associated with their production as portrayed by burning 1 kg of plastics to generate about 3-6 kg of CO2 (including production and incineration) [2]. In addition, their impervious nature to enzymatic breakdown and "linear" consumption as opposed to natural counterparts results in relentless generation of solid waste from most commercial polymers. Although polymers can be recycled to produce new materials or incinerated to recover its heating source value, such an endeavor is neither clearly understood by the majority of consumers nor technological advances are available in most parts of the world. Depleting oil reserves as well as these detrimental environmental impacts observed in the twentyfirst century have driven government, academia, private sectors, and non-profit organizations to explore sustainable polymers from renewable biomass as a long-term alternative. In addition, the consumers' preference as well as the governmental landscape has shaped in favor of sustainable products for a greener environment. Significant advancements have been made to discover sustainable polymers that are cost-effective to manufacture, as well as compete or out-perform traditional materials in mechanical aspects as well as from environmental standpoints [4]. The valuable contributions to the field by several recent books [5, 6] and reviews [7-11] broadly discuss about sustainable polymeric materials. Our objective is to provide a perspective of the efforts to convert small molecular biomass into sustainable polymers in different continents. This introductory chapter overviews sustainable polymers in general and briefly summarizes the content of each chapter afterward.
1.2 Sustainable Polymers

Given the influence of polymers as an indispensable resource for the modern society, it should be taken as a firm concern for sustainable development. There are many statements to define the term of sustainability. For example, "Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" is the working definition provided by the report Our Common Future , published in 1987 by the World Commission on Environment and Development [12]. In most cases, the terms renewable polymers and sustainable polymers are used with overlapping meanings and without any distin

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