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The Mediterranean Sea Temporal Variability and Spatial Patterns von Borzelli, Gianluca Eusebi (eBook)

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 02.05.2014
  • Verlag: Wiley
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The Mediterranean Sea

Surface, intermediate, and deep-water processes and their interaction in time and space drive the major ocean circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. All major forcing mechanisms, such as surface wind forcing, buoyancy fluxes, lateral mass exchange, and deep convection determining the global oceanic circulation are present in this body of water. Deep and intermediate water masses are formed in different areas of the ocean layers and they drive the Mediterranean thermohaline cell, which further shows important analogies with the global ocean conveyor belt. The Mediterranean Sea: Temporal Variability and Spatial Patterns is a comprehensive volume that investigates the temporal and spatial variability patterns in the ocean basin. Volume highlights include: Discussions of state-of-the-art physical and biogeochemical properties of the Mediterranean Sea Multiple physical ocean circulation processes, both in time and spatial scales (basin, sub-basin, and mesoscale) How different regional phenomena in the sea influence the biogeochemistry of the basin and the ocean dynamics Spatio-temporal variability of the surface circulation in the western Mediterranean Deep-water variability and inter-basin interactions in the eastern Mediterranean Sea Understanding the link between global ocean circulation patterns and the global climate
The Mediterranean Sea will be a valuable resource for geoscientists, oceanographers, and meteorologists.

Produktinformationen

    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 180
    Erscheinungsdatum: 02.05.2014
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9781118847619
    Verlag: Wiley
    Größe: 56587 kBytes
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The Mediterranean Sea

1
Introduction to The Mediterranean Sea : Temporal Variability and Spatial Patterns

Gian Luca Eusebi Borzelli1, Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli2, Miroslav Gacˇić3, and Piero Lionello4

1 CERSE (Center for Remote Sensing of the Earth), Rome, Italy; OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimenta), Sgonico (TS),Italy

2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,MA - USA

3 Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - OGS, Trieste,Italy

4 University of Salento, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Lecce,Italy

This book stems from a workshop held in Rome in November 2011 at Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei to mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of the POEM (Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean) program. The objectives of the workshop, however, were more ambitious than a memorial. First, the workshop was meant to provide a synopsis of the state of the art of the present knowledge of the Mediterranean Sea circulation. Second, it aimed at offering the opportunity to scientists working in different areas of the sea, both in the western and eastern basins, to meet and share ideas, fostering pan-Mediterranean collaborations.

The members of the POEM program gratefully acknowledge the crucial support provided over the years by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC/UNESCO Ocean Sciences) and the Mediterranean Science Commission (CIESM).

This book collects eight original research articles describing new results in the study of the Mediterranean Sea physical properties. Until the beginning of the 1980s, the Mediterranean was considered of marginal importance being characterized by specific, regional phenomena with limited interest for global processes. The second half of the 1980s represents a crossroad in the study of this basin. Four large international programs - the Gibraltar Experiment [ Kinder and Bryden , 1987], the Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean [ Malanotte-Rizzoli and Robinson , 1988], which in 1990 evolved in to the fully interdisciplinary program named POEM-Biology and Chemistry (POEM-BC), the Western Mediterranean Circulation Experiment [ WMCE Consortium , 1989], and PRIMO [ EUROMODEL Group , 1995] - defined the major characteristics of the Mediterranean Sea. The picture of its variability emerging from these studies was complex and it showed that multiple interacting time and spatial scales (basin, subbasin, and mesoscale), representing a wide variety of physical processes, characterize the Mediterranean dynamics.

This new observational and theoretical knowledge established that the Mediterranean is a laboratory basin, where the processes characterizing the global ocean and its climate can be investigated. In fact, all major forcing mechanisms (such as surface wind forcing, buoyancy fluxes, lateral mass exchange, and deep convection) determining the global oceanic circulation are present in the Mediterranean Sea. Deep and intermediate water masses are formed in different areas and drive the Mediterranean thermohaline cells, which show important analogies with the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the Mediterranean Sea presents important advantages as temporal and spatial scales are shorter than in the global ocean, simplifying the logistics necessary for monitoring the circulation.

The aforementioned programs ended by the second half of the 1990s revealing a number of important features and opened a series of scientific questions. These can be summarized as follows:

The Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT)

The main source of dense water driving the eastern Mediterranean deep convection cell, normally localized in the Adriatic Sea, by the end of the 1980s, shifted to the Aegean and determined changes

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