Lean Computing for the Cloud
Eric Bauer is Reliability Engineering Manager in the IP Platforms Group of Alcatel-Lucent. Before focusing on reliability engineering, Mr. Bauer spent two decades designing and developing embedded firmware, networked operating systems, internet platforms, and optical transmission systems. He has been awarded more than a dozen US patents, and has authored several books such as Service Quality of Cloud-Based Applications , Reliability and Availability of Cloud Computing , and Design for Reliability: Information and Computer-Based Systems , all of which were published by Wiley-IEEE Press. Mr. Bauer earned his BS in Electrical Engineering from Cornell University and MS in Electrical Engineering from Purdue University.
Lean Computing for the Cloud
Upon completion of this chapter the reader will understand:
The standard definition, characteristics, and benefits of cloud computing
The key roles in the cloud computing ecosystem
Key concepts of application, demand, supply, quality, and fungibility
This section reviews the following key concepts that are used extensively in this work:
Cloud computing fundamentals (Section 1.1)
Roles in cloud computing (Section 1.2)
Applications (Section 1.3)
Demand, supply, capacity, and fungibility (Section 1.4)
Demand variability (Section 1.5) 1.1 Cloud Computing Fundamentals
Cloud computing is defined by ISO/IEC 17788 1 as a " paradigm for enabling network access to a scalable and elastic pool of shareable physical or virtual resources with self-service provisioning and administration on-demand. " ISO/IEC 17788 specifies the following six key characteristics of cloud computing 2 :
Broad network access - " A feature where the physical and virtual resources are available over a network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous client platforms. The focus of this key characteristic is that cloud computing offers an increased level of convenience in that users can access physical and virtual resources from wherever they need to work , as long as it is network accessible, using a wide variety of clients including devices such as mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and workstations " (ISO/IEC 17788). Operationally, this means that end users access cloud-based application services via commonly available wireless and wireline IP networks.
Measured service - " A feature where the metered delivery of cloud services is such that usage can be monitored, controlled, reported, and billed... The focus of this key characteristic is that the customer may only pay for the resources that they use . From the customers' perspective, cloud computing offers the users value by enabling a switch from a low efficiency and asset utilization business model to a high efficiency one " (ISO/IEC 17788). When cloud customers pay only for resources that are used, application services that are engineered so cloud resource usage tracks with application service usage which tracks with application revenue can reduce business risk by better linking application service provider's costs with application service revenues.
Multi-tenancy - " A feature where physical or virtual resources are allocated in such a way that multiple tenants and their computations and data are isolated from and inaccessible to one another " (ISO/IEC 17788). Multi-tenancy enables infrastructure service providers to maximize resource sharing and boost their capacity utilization.
On-demand self-service - " A feature where a cloud service customer can provision computing capabilities, as needed, automatically or with minimal interaction with the cloud service provider. The focus of this key characteristic is that cloud computing offers users a relative reduction in costs, time, and effort needed to take an action, since it grants the user the ability to do what they need, when they need it, without requiring additional human user interactions or overhead " (ISO/IEC 17788). This means that application service providers and/or automated systems working on behalf of those application operators can install, configure, and provision cloud resources to serve their applications in real time. On-demand self-service of capacity planning and fulfillment actions, coupled with rapid elasticity, enables significant reductions in fulfillment times for capacity change actions compared to traditional deployments.
Rapid elasticity and scalability - " A feature where phys