A Companion to Forensic Anthropology
Highlights the latest advances in forensic anthropology research, as well as the most effective practices and techniques used by professional forensic anthropologists in the field Illustrates the development of skeletal biological profiles and offers important new evidence on statistical validation of these analytical methods. Evaluates the goals and methods of forensic archaeology, including the preservation of context at surface-scattered remains, buried bodies and fatal fire scenes, and recovery and identification issues related to large-scale mass disaster scenes and mass grave excavation.
Dennis Dirkmaat is the Chair of the undergraduate program in Applied Forensic Sciences and the Masters of Science in Anthropology at Mercyhurst College. He is a board-certified forensic anthropologist, with a specialty in forensic archaeology, who has conducted hundreds of forensic anthropology cases nationally and internationally. He has been a member of the Federal Government's Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Team (DMORT) since its inception in the mid-1990s, and serves as a consultant for international companies involved in the recovery and identification of victims of mass disaster events around the world.
A Companion to Forensic Anthropology
List of Illustrations
Figure 2.1 Superior view of human remains prior to recovery (top) and plan-view map of remains (bottom). Figure 2.2 Details of case study. (a) General view of site prior to forensic archaeological recovery; (b) clearing the site of surface debris and exposing human remains; (c) taking provience data with survey-grade GPS unit; (d) geographic information system map of site; (e) close-up of skull (exhibiting trauma) and mandible; (f) final exposure of remains; (g) mapping procedure; (h) final map; (i) skeletal remains in the laboratory. Figure 3.1 An example of coffin wear and adhered coffin wood exhibited on the dorsal aspect of a proximal right femur (top image). A historic period cranium (bottom image) looted from an aboveground crypt exhibiting evidence of embalming such as adhered hair with desiccated scalp and adhered fabric (arrows). Figure 3.2 Examples of embalming artifacts that would indicate a formal interment of someone that was embalmed: (a) injector needle, (b) eye cap, (c) mouth former, (d) calvarium clamp, and (e) trocar plug. Figure 3.3 Cemetery skull in situ (left image) with eye cap (a) in right orbit and oxidized injectors (b) within the maxilla and mandible; note that the twisted wire from the injector needle has disintegrated. Figure 3.4 Example of a cranium (frontal and lateral views) classified as a war trophy. Figure 3.5 The image on the left is the inferior aspect of a cranium classified as a teaching specimen. The upper right image is a lateral view of a cranium classified as a teaching specimen, possibly from India. The lower right image is of a lateral view of a cranium classified as a teaching specimen, most likely from China. Figure 4.1 Example of a GPR unit, the MALA RAMAC X3M, configured into a cart that is being pushed over a transect line. The GPR components include the monitor (a) with an internal hard drive and the data-acquisition software, the battery (b), a 500 MHz antenna (c) with the control unit (d) mounted to the top of the antenna, and the survey wheel (e) located within the left rear wheel. Figure 4.2 (a) Unprocessed GPR profile showing two hyperbolae (white arrows) from a shallow-buried pig carcass (left arrow) and a deep buried pig carcass (right arrow) at 4 months of burial. (b) Processed GPR profile showing increased resolution of two hyperbolae (arrows) from a shallow-buried pig carcass (left arrow) and a deep-buried pig carcass (right arrow) at 4 months of burial, compared to Figure 4.2a . Figure 4.3 Advanced GPR processing for a grid search begins with the individual profiles (a), that are processed into a cube (b), using processing software. A variety of cuts including time slices (c) and fence diagrams (d) are commonly made through the cube to discern the spatial location, shape, and size of buried features. Figure 4.4 Four time slices representing progressively deeper depths (approximate depths are provided) of a 5 m × 11 m grid survey. Figure 4.5 Top: note the absence of reflections in the area of a grave, approximately 60 cm deep, containing a recently buried human cadaver in dense clay soil. Bottom: hypothetical plan view of a grid search containing an adult grave feature and a small-sized juvenile grave feature. Figure 5.1 Cartesian coordinate mapping used i