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Clinical Anatomy of the Eye von Snell, Richard S. (eBook)

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 09.04.2013
  • Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
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Clinical Anatomy of the Eye

Clinical Anatomy of the Eye has proved to be a very popular textbook for ophthalmologists and optometrists in training all over the world. The objective of the book is to provide the reader with the basic knowledge of anatomy necessary to practice ophthalmology. It is recognised that this medical speciality requires a detailed knowledge of the eyeball and the surrounding structures. The specialist's knowledge should include not only gross anatomic features and their development, but also the microscopic anatomy of the eyeball and the ocular appendages. The nerve and blood supply to the orbit, the autonomic innervation of the orbital structures, the visual pathway, and associated visual reflexes should receive great emphasis. The practical application of anatomic facts to ophthalmology has been emphasised throughout this book in the form of Clinical Notes in each chapter. Clinical problems requiring anatomic knowledge for their solution are presented at the end of each chapter. Illustrations are kept simple and overview drawings of the distribution of the cranial and autonomic nerves have been included. Richard S Snell, MD, PhD, Emeritus Professor of Anatomy, The George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington D.C. Michael A Lemp, MD, Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Georgetown University Medical Center, President, University of Ophthalmic Consultants of Washington, Washington D.C.

Produktinformationen

    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 432
    Erscheinungsdatum: 09.04.2013
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9781118691007
    Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
    Größe: 13643 kBytes
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Clinical Anatomy of the Eye

CHAPTER 1

Development of the Eye and the Ocular Appendages

CHAPTER OUTLINE

Introduction

The Eyeball

The Retina

Macular Area and Fovea Centralis

The Optic Nerve

The Lens

The Vascular Lens Capsule

The Lens Capsule

The Ciliary Body and Suspensory Ligaments of the Lens

The Iris

The Anterior and Posterior Chambers

The Vitreous Body

The Cornea

The Sclera

The Choroid

The Extraocular Muscles

Accessory Eye Structures

The Eyelids

The Lacrimal Gland

The Lacrimal Sac and Nasolacrimal Duct

The Orbit

Postnatal Growth

Senile Changes in the Eye

Clinical Notes

Strabismus

Cataract

Glaucoma

Persistent Pupillary Membrane

Coloboma

Absence of Pigment in the Retina and Iris

Cleft Eyelid

Adhesion of Eyelid Margins

Atresia of the Nasolacrimal Duct

Congenital Fistulas of the Lacrimal Sac

Clinical Problems

Answers to Clinical Problems
Introduction

The eye is formed from both ectoderm and mesenchyme. The ectoderm that is derived from the neural tube gives rise to the retina, the nerve fibers of the optic nerve, and the smooth muscle of the iris. The surface ectoderm on the side of the head forms the corneal and conjunctival epithelium, the lens, and the lacrimal and tarsal glands. The mesenchyme forms the corneal stroma, the sclera, the choroid, the iris, the ciliary musculature, part of the vitreous body, and the cells lining the anterior chamber. The endothelium of the cornea is believed to be of neural crest origin.

The reader should note the importance of the induction of one ocular tissue by another during development. The lens, for example, is induced to develop by the presence of the optic vesicle. The presence of the developing lens induces the formation of the cornea and stimulates the development of the vitreous body. The presence of the developing lens is also important for the normal growth of the pigment layer of the retina, which in turn influences the differentiation of the mesenchyme into the choroid and the sclera. How this induction process is brought about remains to be determined.
The Eyeball

The rudimentary eyeball develops as an ectodermal diverticulum from the lateral aspect of the forebrain ( Fig. 1-1 ). The diverticulum grows out laterally toward the side of the head, and the end becomes slightly dilated to form the optic vesicle, while the proximal portion becomes constricted to form the optic stalk ( Fig. 1-1 ). At the same time, a small area of surface ectoderm overlying the optic vesicle thickens to form the lens placode. The lens placode invaginates and sinks below the surface ectoderm to become the lens vesicle. Meanwhile, the optic vesicle becomes invaginated to form the double-layered optic cup. The inferior edge of the optic cup is deficient, and this notch is continuous with a groove on the inferior aspect of the optic stalk called the optic or choroidal fissure ( Fig. 1-1 ). Vascular mesenchyme now grows into the optic fissure and takes with it the hyaloid artery. Later, this fissure becomes narrowed by growth of its margins around the artery, and by the seventh week of embryonic

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