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Necropsy Guide for Dogs, Cats, and Small Mammals

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 28.11.2016
  • Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
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Necropsy Guide for Dogs, Cats, and Small Mammals

Necropsy Guide for Dogs, Cats, and Small Mammals is a complete, practical resource for performing necropsies on dogs, cats, rabbits, rodents, and ferrets in the veterinary clinic, animal shelter, research laboratory, or in the field. Provides practical guidance on all aspects of performing an necropsy on dogs, cats, and small mammals and interpreting the results Presents more than 200 full-color images to demonstrate techniques and findings Offers step-by-step instructions for the necropsy process and collecting samples Includes an anatomy review, discussion of dissection techniques, and list of common artifacts and post-mortem changes for each organ system Supports veterinarians in performing a necropsy in any setting, including animal shelters, veterinary clinics, research laboratories, and in the field
Sean P. McDonough , DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVP, is an Associate Professor at Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine in Ithaca, New York, USA. Teresa Southard , DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVP, is an Assistant Clinical Professor at Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine in Ithaca, New York, USA.


    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 224
    Erscheinungsdatum: 28.11.2016
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9781119115670
    Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
    Größe: 20009 kBytes
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Necropsy Guide for Dogs, Cats, and Small Mammals

Necropsy Basics

This chapter provides some background information for the prosector before starting the necropsy, including essential supplies, safety considerations, documentation of necropsy findings, and the physiology and gross manifestations of postmortem change.
2.1 Necropsy Facilities

The necropsy procedure does not require a specialized facility. Large animal veterinarians routinely perform necropsies in a pasture or a barn. In a small animal clinic or laboratory setting, a stainless steel work table with running water and plumbed to a sanitary sewer line is ideal. The area chosen should be easy to clean and disinfect. The necropsy should be performed at a time and place where there are minimal distractions and foot traffic so as to minimize the chances of cross contamination.
2.2 Necropsy Equipment

The instruments and supplies needed to perform a necropsy are relatively few and inexpensive. The major expense is the investment of an adequate amount of time to perform a complete necropsy. A kit assembled beforehand can facilitate the necropsy process. Next is a suggested list of equipment and supplies:

Sharp blade for cutting soft tissue: Knife, scalpel
A sharp blade is the most important tool for the prosector. The choice between a knife and a scalpel should depend on availability, size of the animal and personal preference. A good knife will hold its edge better than a scalpel blade and can be sharpened as needed. Correctly sharpening a knife requires considerable skill and patience. A flat ground blade made of stainless steel is a bit harder to sharpen but the cutting edge will usually hold up better than a double angle edge. A wooden handle is porous and may absorb pathogens, so a synthetic handle that can be easily disinfected is preferred. A steel is essential to hone the blade after sharpening and to revive the edge after cutting for a while. The steel should be at least as long as your knife blade. Hold the knife crossways against the steel and tilt the blade until the cutting edge meets the shaft of the steel at a 22.5°angle (hint: hold the blade perpendicular to the steel, then cut the angle in half to 45°; cut the angle in half again to reach the correct angle). Gently draw the blade towards you while gliding it down the length of the steel ( Fig. 2.1 ). Repeat 10 to 12 times on each side and then rinse and wipe the blade with a cloth to remove any metal filings.

A scalpel is a good choice for the necropsy of a puppy, kitten, or small mammal. For a medium to large sized animal, a knife is usually the best choice for opening the carcass, while a scalpel can be used for more delicate dissection of the organs.

Sturdy instrument for cutting bone and removing the brain: Bone cutting forceps, hedge clippers, pruning shears, oscillating saw
A complete necropsy requires cutting the bones of the ribs and skull to access the viscera, as well as the femur to examine the bone marrow. In kittens, puppies, and small mammals, bone forceps ( Fig. 2.2 ) or strong scissors (e.g., poultry scissors) are sufficient for these tasks. Bone forceps are also the tool of choice for cutting the ribs of small dogs and most cats, and can be used to open the skulls of these animals as well. These tools are often referred to as rongeurs, but rongeurs have a curved tip for scooping out bone, while bone forceps have a sharp, cutting edge. Removal of the brain in most adult cats and dogs is most efficiently performed with an oscillating saw ( Fig. 2.3 ). For medium to large sized dogs hedge clippers are the instrument of choice for cutting ribs. ( Fig. 2.4 ) A hand saw can also be used to cut ribs and to open skulls of large dogs. An instrument called a T tool ( Fig. 2.5 ) is very helpful in prying the skull cap off after the initial c

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