Citizenship for the Learning Society
Naomi Hodgson is a Visiting Research Associate in the Centre for Philosophy of Education at University College London. She is also an affiliate of the Laboratory for Education and Society, KU Leuven, Belgium and Visiting Lecturer at Leeds Trinity University, UK. Her research interests include the role of learning and research in current modes of governmentality, subjectivity, and technologies of accountability, on which she has published a number of journal articles and book chapters. She is currently Reviews Editor for the Journal of Philosophy of Education .
Citizenship for the Learning Society
Constructing Europe : Citizenship, Learning, and Accountability
As a starting point for considering how citizenship, and the relationship between citizenship and education, have come to be understood in the European context in recent years, this chapter begins by providing some historical background to European integration. In particular it draws attention to the way that history has been used to promote a European identity since the European Union and, with it, 'European citizenship' were created in 1992. This is placed in the context of an understanding of advanced liberalism or neoliberalism from the perspective of governmentality, following on from the introduction to this political rationality given in the previous chapter.
Current practices of accountability are indicative of the need to evidence the existence of a European public. Large-scale attempts to foster a European consciousness were made following the creation of European citizenship by the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 (OJEU, 1992). Following this, EU policy-makers sought to create a European identity, a European public, to 'displace the cultural hegemony of nationalism' (Shore, 2000, p. 21). The creation of symbols of Europe such as a flag and a currency are particularly visible examples of the process of constructing 'Europe' anew. Large-scale measures in the areas of education and culture in particular have sought to make Europe visible and tangible to its citizens. Through the promotion of a shared European heritage (see Shore, 2000), educational exchange programmes between member states (e.g. SOCRATES and ERASMUS), 'European Years of...', and the Capital of Culture competition, time and space themselves have been reordered in the process of Europeanisation (Shore, 2000, p. 50).
The Bologna Declaration of 1999 intensified the rate and level of integration, as it sought to 'establish a more complete and far-reaching Europe'. 1 The Declaration, which began the process of creating a European Area of Higher Education, makes clear the centrality of education to the future development of Europe:
A Europe of Knowledge is now widely recognised as an irreplaceable factor for social and human growth and as an indispensable component to consolidate and enrich the European citizenship, capable of giving its citizens the necessary competences to face the challenges of the new millennium, together with an awareness of shared values and belonging to a common social and cultural space.
The importance of education and educational co-operation in the development and strengthening of stable, peaceful and democratic societies is universally acknowledged as paramount ... (p. 1).
The Declaration provides the basis for the pursuit of compatibility and comparability of European higher education institutions, mobility, increasing competitiveness, and the acceptance of the interrelationship between these objectives, citizenship, and the promotion of European culture:
We must in particular look at the objective of increasing the international competitiveness of the European system of higher education. The vitality and efficiency of any civilisation can be measured by the appeal that its culture has for other countries. We need to ensure that the European higher education system acquires a world-wide degree of attraction equal to our extraordinary cultural and scientific traditions (pp. 2-3).
Subsequent developments have taken place at the local political, institutional, and individual levels as Europe has sought to standardise practices of measurement, presentation, and accountability within and across the member states. Part of what has been termed the 'Europeanisation' of Europe, this requires the categorisation of phenomena as European. Concepts such as 'European citizen', 'common European values', 'European culture', an