Essentials of CAS2 Assessment
Each chapter in the book highlights key concepts, bulleted points, and actual test questions. The CAS2 is a valuable tool in the detection of learning disabilities, ADHD, TBI, retardation, and giftedness. Essentials of CAS2 Assessment is the guidebook professionals need to ensure the CAS2 test is applied and analyzed accurately so that the results can be applied to the maximum benefit of the child. JACK A. NAGLIERI, P H D, is Research Professor at the University of Virginia, Senior Research Scientist at the Devereux Center for Resilient Children, and Emeritus Professor of Psychology at George Mason University. With J.P. Das, he is well known for the PASS theory of intelligence and its application using the Cognitive Assessment System. TULIO M. OTERO, P H D, is Associate Professor at The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, where he teaches in both the school psychology and clinical psychology programs. He is a practicing school psychologist and consultant with a specialization in clinical neuropsychology, is past president of the Hispanic Neuropsychological Society, and co-author of the Spanish edition of the Cognitive Assessment System , 2nd Edition.
Essentials of CAS2 Assessment
In 1905 Alfred Binet published the first edition of what would become, about 100 years later, the Stanford-Binet V (Roid, 2003). Fifteen years after the first Binet scale, Yoakum and Yerkes published the Army Mental Tests (1920), on which the Wechsler Intelligence scales (originally published in 1939) were largely based. These measures of IQ all contained test questions that have verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal (spatial) content. The view that an intelligence test should include measures that require knowledge of vocabulary and quantitative concepts has been the basis of both group as well as individually administered IQ tests for a century (Naglieri, 2015).
IQ tests took an important evoluationary step when Alan and Nadeen Kaufman published the K-ABC in 1983. Their approach was revolutionary: take verbal and quantitative measures out of the measurment of ability and use a conceptualization of intelligence to guide the inclusion of subtests. A second evolutionary step in the advancement of intelligence and its measurement was provided in 1997 when Naglieri and Das published the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS). That approach was simlar to the one taken by the Kaufmans in so far as subtests requiring knowledge of vocabulary and arithmetic were excluded. The CAS was unique in that it contained four scales following Luria's (1973) view of four brain-based abilities. The goal was to provide a new way of defining ability based on a cognitive and neuropsychological theory and develop a test to measure these basic psychological processing abilities. The K-ABC and the CAS departed from the traditional approach to IQ because of content differences and their strong conceptual basis.
There has been an evolution in thinking about what a test of ability should be. First, there are traditional IQ tests in which verbal and quantiative test questions are an intergral part of the scales. In these instruments, vocabulary, block building, and arithmetic are considered fundamental and important ways to measure ability. More recently these tests have been partitioned in more subscales based on combining subtests into new categories conceptualized from a varieity of models. For example, although Wechsler originally had Verbal and Performance IQ scales, now the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition (Wechsler, 2014), has scales labeled Verbal Comprehension, Visual Spatial, Fluid Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (see Naglieri, 2016a, for a review of the WISC-V). The content of the test, however, remains remarkably the same as what was in the Wechsler-Bellevue 1939 edition.
DON'T FORGET 1.1
Psychology advanced considerably during the 20th century, especially in the knowledge of specific abilities and the essential cognitive processes that make up intelligence. Our tests of ability should reflect that evolution.
Rapid Reference 1.1
1905 First Binet scale is published by Binet and Simon, subsequently revised in 1908. 1909 Goddard translates Binet-Simon from French to English. 1916 Terman publishes the Stanford revision and extension of the Binet-Simon scale that is normed on American children and adolescents and is widely used. 1937 Terman and Merrill publish a revision of the 1916 scale called the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. 1960 Stanford-Binet, Form LM (Second Edition) 1972 Stanford-Binet, Form LM (Third Edition) 1986 Stanford-Binet, Fourth Edition (by Thorndike, Hagen, & Sattler) /tab