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Essentials of Intellectual Disability Assessment and Identification von Brue, Alan W. (eBook)

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 01.04.2016
  • Verlag: Wiley
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Essentials of Intellectual Disability Assessment and Identification

Brue's Essentials Intellectual Disability is a concise, up-to-date overview of intellectual disability evaluation and assessment. This text offers a practical, concise overview of the nature of intellectual disability and adaptive skills functioning in children, adolescents, and adults. Coverage includes the latest information on prevalence, causes, differential diagnoses, behavioral and social concerns, test instruments, and the new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. The discussion promotes a deeper understanding of the use of assessment data to inform interventions in clinical practice. Designed for easy navigation, each chapter highlights important points and key cautions to allow quick reference without sacrificing depth. A sample assessment report illustrates how findings should be communicated to better inform treatment, giving you a practical reference to ensure comprehensive reporting. In 2013, the DSM-5 conceptualization of intellectual disabilities was significantly changed. It's important for professionals to have access to the most current guidelines from a variety of sources, and this book compiles them all into a single reference. ALAN W. BRUE, P H D, is a nationally certified school psychologist. He provides a wide range of school psychological services to metro-Atlanta school districts. LINDA WILMSHURST, P H D, is an associate professor of psychology at Elon University and a licensed clinical (ABPP) and school psychologist. She authored six books, including Essentials of Child Psychopathology and Clinical and Educational Child Psychology. Alan and Linda co-authored A Parent's Guide to Special Education and The Complete Guide to Special Education .


    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 192
    Erscheinungsdatum: 01.04.2016
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9781118875537
    Verlag: Wiley
    Größe: 960 kBytes
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Essentials of Intellectual Disability Assessment and Identification

Chapter Two
Prevalence, Causes, Issues, and Comorbid Disorders

In this chapter, we provide a brief overview of intellectual disability (ID) or intellectual developmental disorder (IDD), the different types of etiology for the disorders (chromosomal abnormalities/genetic origins and environmental toxins/teratogens), and the common types of intellectual disabilities associated with each factor: chromosomal (Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Angelman syndrome) and environmental (fetal alcohol syndrome, teratogens, alcohol, lead-based paint, etc.). We also supply information on prevalence rates and descriptions of the common characteristics associated with each disorder type. The remainder of the chapter will focus on such topics as distinguishing between an intellectual disability and a developmental delay and other differential diagnoses, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), learning disabilities (such as dyslexia, dyscalculia, dyspraxia/developmental coordination disorder, dysgraphia), or other early onset disorders, such as language impairments (including late language emergence (LLE), specific language impairment (SLI, or selective mutism). Some of the more common comorbid disorders will be addressed in Chapter 3 .
Etiology of Intellectual Disabilities: Subtypes

Intellectual disabilities can have a wide range of etiology including innate factors (genetic factors and biological) that are often outside of one's control, and environmental factors that are often preventable (toxins in the environment, or teratogens ). As a result of the Human Genome Project and advances in human genetics, our knowledge and understanding of the influences that gene variants can have on human development and the potential for increased risks for vulnerability for some conditions have increased significantly. As noted by Khoury, Burke, and Thomson (2000), "Risks for almost all human diseases result from the interactions between inherited gene variants and environmental factors, including chemical, physical, and infectious agents and behavioral or nutritional factors. which raises the possibility of targeting disease prevention and health promotion efforts to individuals at risk because of their genetic make-up (p 5)." At the time of publication of their book on genetics and public health, 872 genes had been identified that could increase the risk of having an intellectual disability (Khoury et al., 2000).

In this section, we will discuss two broad areas of etiology: an intellectual disability due to genetic conditions and chromosome abnormalities, and an intellectual disability resulting from environmental factors.
Intellectual Disabilities Due to Genetic and Chromosomal Abnormalities

Individuals whose intellectual disability results from biological causes have either inherited a genetic defect or develop a chromosomal abnormality (genes combine or mutate or are compromised in some way). The following are some of the most common types of intellectual disability that result from genetic and chromosomal causes.
Down Syndrome

With a worldwide annual prevalence rate of 1 in every 1,000 births and a US prevalence rate of 1 in 800 births, Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common chromosome abnormalities found in humans (Weijerman & de Winter, 2010). DS results from anomalies with chromosome 21. There are several ways that this gene can be compromised: An extra chromosome 21 may be evident, or the chromosome itself may be damaged in some way. Those with DS who have an extra chromosome are called Trisomy 21. The extra chromosome can cause a host of physical problems and cognitive challenges (Grant, 2006).

Individuals with DS are not a homogeneous group, and characteristics can differ widely, since not all features of DS are present in every case. However, some of

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