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Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology, Volume 38 Culture and Developmental Systems

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 28.10.2016
  • Verlag: Wiley
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Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology, Volume 38

The latest on child psychology and the role of cultural and developmental systems Now in its 38 th volume, Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology: Culture and Developmental Systems contains the collected papers from the most prestigious symposia in the field of child development. Providing scholars, students, and practitioners with access to the work of leading researchers in human development, it outlines how the field has advanced dramatically in recent years-both empirically and conceptually. The updated collection outlines the latest information and research on child psychology, including the cultural neuroscience of the developing brain in childhood, the role of culture and language in the development of color categorization, socioemotional development across cultures, and much more. Find out how much math is 'hard wired,' if at all Explore the development of culture, language, and emotion Discover cultural expressions and the neurobiological underpinnings in mother-infant interactions Examine the cultural organization of young children's everyday learning
Written for generalists and specialists alike, Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology offers the most up-to-date information on the central processes of human development and its implications for school success, as well as other areas. Maria D. Sera is a full professor in the Institute of Child Development at the University of Minnesota. Her research focuses on the relation between language and cognitive development.

Produktinformationen

    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 384
    Erscheinungsdatum: 28.10.2016
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9781119301967
    Verlag: Wiley
    Größe: 4791 kBytes
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Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology, Volume 38

CHAPTER 1
Cultural Neuroscience of the Developing Brain in Childhood

Joan Y. Chiao
INTRODUCTION

From infancy to adolescence, social contact with parental caregivers, kin, and peers provide the earliest means of cultural transmission. Learning how to perceive, interpret, and respond to people and objects in the environment, infant brains acquire preferences and knowledge of cultural norms, practices, and later beliefs, attitudes, and values from caregivers that independently and interactively shape subsequent neurobiological maturation along with genes. By childhood, the conscious mind develops a continuous subjective experience that is stored as autobiographical memory. This emergence of conscious experience in the form of autobiographical memory represents a pivotal change in the ability to store and transmit cultural information from one's self to another during development.

How does culture shape the mind and brain in childhood? How does learning to acquire and transmit culture occur developmentally? These questions represent some of the most compelling research directions in cultural neuroscience. The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of research in cultural neuroscience and to introduce a cultural neuroscience framework of the developing brain that provides insight into the promotion of healthy child development.
THEORIES IN CULTURAL NEUROSCIENCE OF THE DEVELOPING BRAIN

Research in cultural neuroscience addresses the origins of human diversity. Where does human diversity come from? Dynamic biocultural constructivism theory posits that culture and biology interact along three primary time scales: phylogeny, ontogeny, and situation (Li, 2003) and a series of interactive processes with developmental plasticity across distinct levels shapes cognitive and behavioral development. Cultural neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field that integrates theory and methods from anthropology, cultural psychology, neuroscience, and genetics to understand diversity in human behavior across multiple time scales (Chiao & Ambady, 2007; Chiao, Cheon, Pornpattanangkul, Mrazek, & Blizinsky, 2013). (See Figure 1.1 )

Figure 1.1 The cultural neuroscience framework.

Source: Adapted from Chiao & Ambady, 2007.

There are at least three mechanisms by which the human brain acquires culture throughout development: experience-dependent neural plasticity, mirror neurons, and culture-gene coevolution. Behavior or experience-dependent neural plasticity refers to cortical organization that is affected by developmental, experiential, and cultural influences. Several structural features of the brain prune and grow as a function of distinct developmental stages. Functional changes in the developing brain also occur in response to neuronal maturation. The term mirror neurons refers to brain regions within the premotor and motor cortex that contain neurons that respond when both observing and performing an action (Iacoboni, 2009; Losin, Iacoboni, Martin, & Dapretto, 2012). Activity within mirror neurons is present during infancy during viewing of goal-directed movement (Del Giudice, Manera, & Keyers, 2009; Nyström, 2008). By adulthood, mirror neurons demonstrate a preferential response for reinforced goal-directed movement. For instance, ballet dancers will respond not only when performing a pirourette but also when observing another perform a pirourette; furthermore, mirror neuron response is heightened when experts observe and perform actions within their expertise (e.g., ballet dancers observing ballet) (Calvo-Merino, Grèzes, Glaser, Passingham, & Haggard, 2006). Mirror neurons form the biological basis of action-based cultural learning and play an important early role in the acquisition of cultural competence.

The term culture-gene coev

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