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From Frequency to Time-Average-Frequency A Paradigm Shift in the Design of Electronic System von Xiu, Liming (eBook)

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 22.04.2015
  • Verlag: Wiley-IEEE Press
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From Frequency to Time-Average-Frequency

Written in a simple, easy to understand style, this book will teach PLL users how to use new clock technology in their work in order to create innovative applications. - Investigates the clock frequency concept from a different perspective--at an application level - Teaches engineers to use this new clocking technology to create innovations in chip/system level, through real examples extracted from commercial products Liming Xiu earned his B.S. and M.S. degrees in physics from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 1986 and 1988, respectively. Mr. Xiu earned his second M.S. degree in electrical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, in 1995. Currently, he is involved in an IC design startup. He has 16 granted and 9 pending US patents and has published numerous IEEE journal papers and two books: VLSI Circuit Design Methodology Demystified (Wiley-IEEE Press) and Nanometer Frequency Synthesis beyond Phase-Locked Loop (Wiley-IEEE Press). He served as vice president of IEEE Circuit and Systems Society in years 2009-2010.


    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 180
    Erscheinungsdatum: 22.04.2015
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9781119102281
    Verlag: Wiley-IEEE Press
    Größe: 21100 kBytes
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From Frequency to Time-Average-Frequency



The word paradigm is defined in the dictionary as "a framework containing the basic assumptions, ways of thinking, and methodology that are commonly accepted by members of a scientific community." In his influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions , published in 1962, Thomas Kuhn used the term paradigm shift to indicate a change in the basic assumptions (the paradigms ) within the ruling theory of science . Today, the term paradigm shift is used widely, both in scientific and nonscientific communities, to describe a profound change in a fundamental model or perception of events.

Ever since the clock concept was introduced into microelectronic system design many decades ago, it was assumed that all the cycles in a clock pulse train have to be equal in their lengths (a rigorous clock signal). One reason that this form of clock signal has dominated microelectronic system design for a long time is that, in the past, the requirement for IC clocking was mostly straightforward. A clock signal with a fixed rate was sufficient for most systems. However, the complexity of future systems changes the game. Low-power operation, low electromagnetic radiation, synchronization among networked devices (e.g., Internet of Things), complex data communication schemes, etc., all require a clock signal that is flexible.

Another reason behind the dominance of this style of rigorous clock is that time, which shows its existence and its flow indirectly through the use of a clock pulse train, is not a physical entity that can be controlled and observed directly. Thus, creating a flexible clock is an inherently difficult task. It demands effort beyond simply playing with various techniques at the circuit level. Philosophically it requires an adjustment, at a fundamental level, in our thinking about the way of clocking microelectronic systems. The "anomaly" in this case is a new perspective on the concept of clock frequency. In this line of argument, the materials presented in this book induce a paradigm shift in the field of microelectronic system design.

Although there are numerous different types of microelectronic devices and systems supporting the daily operation of our society, we only deal with two things when designing such devices and systems: level and time. Microelectronic devices and systems perform their magic by creating a variety of events that occur inside the silicon chip in a predetermined order. The purpose of such events is to essentially specify "what happens at when." In the process of creating those events, we need "level" to represent "what" and "time" to describe "when."

In describing "what," there are two approaches to implementation: (1) the analog way and (2) the digital way. The analog method uses proportional relationships to describe the physical world. ( Physical world : It is the sum of all the stuff around us; you can see it, touch it, taste it, hear it, or smell it. And these five senses are based on the proportional relationship.) By contrast, the digital approach employs a binary system (i.e., on/off) to represent information. It is the natural language for performing computation using microelectronic devices. In the past several decades of silicon chip design, the task of describing "what" has been studied in great depth. Perhaps, it is fair to say that it is a mature art now.

However, we have not been as creative in dealing with "when." Historically, we were fixed in the belief that any clock cycle has to be exactly the same as any other cycle. Hence, we restrained our hand at making the clockwork for the electrical world. Since "time" is half of the story in "what happens at when," it can impact the microelectronic system's overall information processing efficiency in great deal. A s

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