LTE Communications and Networks
Covers the most recent developments of system enhancement techniques in terms of Femtocells, power management, interference mitigation and antenna design Includes contributions from leading experts in the field
Written for industry professionals and researchers, LTE Communications and Networks is a groundbreaking book that presents a comprehensive treatment to the LTE systems in the context of Femtocells and antenna design and covers the wide range of issues related to the topic. Dr. Masood Ur Rehman is a Lecturer in Electronic Engineering at University of Bedfordshire, UK. He has authored four books, eight book chapters, more than eighty technical papers in leading journals and peer-reviewed conferences and one patent in the area of antennas and RF systems. Dr. Ghazanfar Ali Safdar is a Senior Lecturer in Computer Networking at University of Bedfordshire, UK. He has authored two books, nine book chapters and around sixty research papers in renowned journals and peer-reviewed conferences in the area of wireless Communications and networking.
LTE Communications and Networks
Ghazanfar Ali Safdar and Masood Ur Rehman
School of Computer Science and Technology, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, UK
Wireless communication has involved relentless years of research and design and comprises cellular telephony, broadcast and satellite television, wireless networking to today's 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology. However, cellular telephony networks surpass the others in terms of usage . Although cellular networks were designed to provide mobile voice services and low rate mobile data services, data services have excelled voice and findings show that global data traffic has grown by 280% since 2008 and is expected to double annually in the next 5 years . Importantly, it already exceeded those expectations by 2010 by nearly tripling and it is further predicted that by 2020 nearly 1 billion people will access the Internet using a wireless mobile device .
The introduction of new or the upgrade of existing wireless standards such as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and 3GPP's LTE have been developed to meet traffic and high data rates. Most of the methods to increase spectrum capacity in practice today are aligned towards; (1) improving the macro layer by upgrading radio access, (2) densifying the macro layer by reducing inter-site distances and (3) the use of low power nodes to complement the macro layer . Macro layer deployment is a typical approach of deploying Base Station (BS) in proximity to each other covering large distances with reduced handover frequency. Although it is the backbone of most wireless networks, it has proven to be inefficient as it does not guarantee a high-quality link in situations where the BS and Mobile Station (MS) are relatively far away. Moreover, a BS serving hundreds of contentious users all vying for resources is old fashioned . Researchers indicate that 50% of all voice calls and most of the data traffic, more than 70%, originate indoors . However, indoor users may suffer from a reduced Received Signal Strength (RSS) due to low signal penetration through the walls or attenuation leading to total loss of signal in situations where the distance between transmitter and receiver is large. There is a need to provide solutions for poor indoor coverage to satisfy consumers. According to  the solutions to poor indoor coverage can be classified into two types, Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) and Distributed Radios.
Distributed Antenna Systems comprise a group of Remote Antenna Units (RAU) spaced apart, providing not only enhanced indoor signal quality by significantly reducing transmission distance but also reducing transmit power (the power of the reference signal) . Some of the challenges involved in deploying DAS are the choice of antennas and selecting a suitable location [8, 9]. Distributed radios involve the introduction of smaller cells to complement the deficiencies of the larger macrocell and the gains include an efficient spatial reuse of spectrum . These small cells, which include picocells and microcells, are overlaid in the macrocell to provide voice and data service. Due to the two-tier nature of its architecture, it is prone to interference that may result in a low Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR), throughput and in some cases a total disruption of service. As a result, there is a need to provide interference avoidance and mitigation schemes. Recently, a new distributed form of radio, LTE femtocells, has emerged that promises to be a viable solution to indoor cellular communication.
1.1 Evolution of Wireless and Cellular Communication
Communication has been essential for humanity to interact with one another where distance, quality of communication and high demand have