Mobile and Wireless Networks
Mobile and Wireless Networks
Introduction to Mobile and Networks
The development of mobile and wireless communications was traditionally viewed as a sequence of successive generations. The first generation of analog mobile telephony was followed by the second or digital generation. The third generation enables full multimedia data transmission as well as voice communications. The fourth generation is completely Internet Protocol (IP)-based, including voice communications, and increases the throughput in parallel to these activities related to the evolution of current fourth-generation (4G) wireless technologies. There is also increased research effort on future radio access, referred to as fifth-generation (5G) radio access. Such future radio access is anticipated to take the performance and service provisioning of wireless systems a step further, providing data rates of up to 200 Mbps with wide-area coverage and up to 1 Gbps with local-area coverage. 5G technologies are being focused on as it is expected to eventually deliver approximately 10 Gbps. This can be considered as a normal evolution in response to increased user behavior, demand and quality of service (QoS) expectations.
In this chapter, we provide a brief overview of mobile and wireless networks (MWN). The objective is to present the background and context necessary for understanding subsequent chapters. We review the history of MWN, enumerate their applications and compare them in order to see the effect of such technology not only on the market drivers but also on research domain areas.
1.1. Mobile and wireless generation networks
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) launched International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT-2000) as an initiative to cover high-speed, broadband and IP-based mobile systems featuring network-to-network interconnection, feature/service transparency, global roaming and seamless services independent of location. IMT-2000 aims to bring high-quality mobile multimedia telecommunications to a worldwide mass market by increasing the speed and ease of wireless communications, responding to problems due to increased demand to pass data via telecommunications, and providing "anytime, anywhere" services.
Two partnership organizations were born out from the ITU-IMT-2000 initiative: the Third Generation Partnership Project ( www.3gpp.org ) and the Third Generation Partnership Project 2 ( www.3gpp2.org ). The 3GPP and 3GPP2 developed their own version of 2G, 3G and later mobile systems. In parallel, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) was developing proper versions of the wireless networks that can be compared functionally with those of 3GPP and 3GPPP2 and their technology-based generations can be crossed with those of 3GPP and 3GPP2. Their terminologies are different but the goal is the same, which is to develop new technologies that make use of advances in the area of wireless and mobile technologies. This is why, we will summarize all the generations developed by these organizations as a path of evolution in the world of mobile and wireless networking.
1.1.1. First generation mobile technology: 1G
First-generation cellular networks (1G) were analog-based and limited to voice services and capabilities. Compared to today's technology, 1G technology was vastly inferior. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, various 1G cellular mobile communication systems were introduced; the first such system, the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) was introduced in the United States in the late 1970s. Other 1G systems include the Nordic Mobile Telephone System (NMTs) and the Total Access Communications System (TACS). While these systems offer reasonably good voice quality, they provide limited spectral efficiency. The evolution toward 2G was thus necessary to overcome the drawback of such technology.