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Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates

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Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates

The First Edition of Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates has been immensely popular with students and researchers interested in freshwater biology and ecology, limnology, environmental science, invertebrate zoology, and related fields. The First Edition has been widely used as a textbook and this Second Edition should continue to serve students in advanced classes. The Second Edition features expanded and updated chapters, especially with respect to the cited references and the classification of North American freshwater invertebrates. New chapters or substantially revised chapters include those on freshwater ecosystems, snails, aquatic spiders, aquatic insects, and crustaceans. Most up-to-date and informative text of its kind Written by experts in the ecology of various invertebrate groups, coverage emphasizes ecological information within a current taxonomic framework Each chapter contains both morphological and taxonomic information, including keys to North American taxa (usually to the generic level) as well as bibliographic information and a list of further readings The text is geared toward researchers and advanced undergraduate and graduate students

Produktinformationen

    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 1056
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9780080530673
    Verlag: Elsevier Textbooks
    Größe: 53554 kBytes
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Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates

2 AN OVERVIEW OF FRESHWATER HABITATS

James H. Thorp

Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699

Alan P. Covich

Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523

I. Introduction

II. Lotic Environments
A. The Physical-Chemical Milieu B. Ecosystem Changes Along the Stream Course
III. Underground Aquatic Habitats
A. Hyporheic and Phreatic Zones B. Aquatic Habitats within Caves and Other Karst Topography
IV. Lentic Ecosystems
A. Geomorphology and Abiotic Zonation of Lakes B. Biotic Zonation of Lakes C. Wetlands, Ephemeral Ponds, and Swamps D. Hypersaline Lakes
Literature Cited
I. INTRODUCTION

The contribution of inland waters to the total biospheric water content is insignificant in terms of percentage (<1% according to Wetzel, 2001 ) but absolutely crucial from the perspective of terrestrial and freshwater life. Although inland lakes contain 100 times as much water as surface rivers, most lake water is held within massive basins, such as the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America, Lake Baikal of Siberia, and Lake Tanganyika of East Africa. Because most freshwater invertebrates are clustered within shallow, well-lighted zones of lakes, the relative importance of small ponds, creeks, and rivers as habitats for aquatic invertebrates is much greater than their volume percentages would otherwise indicate. Composition, species richness, and total density of invertebrates vary considerably among inland water habitats, as discussed in this chapter.

Distributions of invertebrates are influenced by interactions among physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. The general importance of these abiotic and biotic factors is examined in this chapter. Detailed information on the ecology of individual taxa in inland water ecosystems can be gleaned from Chapters 3-23 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 .
II. LOTIC ENVIRONMENTS

Flowing waters, or lotic environments, were a principal pathway for evolutionary movement of animals from the sea to lakes and land. Even today, many taxa of freshwater invertebrates are restricted to headwater streams and rivers by unique environmental characteristics of these ecosystems. Compared to nonflowing waters, or lentic ecosystems, streams are generally more turbulent than lakes and, therefore, stratification of the water mass with a thermocline is rare. High turbulence generally maintains high oxygen concentrations, reduces within-stream temperature differences, and more evenly distributes plankton and suspended or dissolved nutrients. Temperatures in streams fluctuate over a smaller range than is typical of shallow littoral zones of lentic ecosystems, where most lake-dwelling animals reside ( Hynes, 1970 ). Except in the northernmost rivers, ice is less commonly encountered and is generally not as thick as in lakes. Flowing water habitats frequently possess more habitat heterogeneity, and the food web in forested drainage basins is more dependent on allochthonous production (externally produced plant matter), even though instream production can be important ( Thorp and Delong, 1994 ). Lotic ecosystems are also more permanent on bo

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